Health and the People: What do you need to know?
"I like revising with friends..."
This section of the paper (P2:A) is worth 25% of your GCSE and contains 4 modules (see the structure below to find out more). With this module, you need to remember that everything is linked to the 4 key themes and 7 factors. Please study the 1 sheet overview carefully and remember this. Lots of people tend to make errors on the 16 mark question because they forget to use examples that are linked to a theme. Good luck!
P2:A - Health and the People, c.1000-present
Part one: Medicine stands still (upto 1500)
• Medieval medicine: approaches including natural, supernatural, ideas of Hippocratic and
Galenic methods and treatments; the medieval doctor; training, beliefs about cause of illness.
• Medical progress: the contribution of Christianity to medical progress and treatment;
hospitals; the nature and importance of Islamic medicine and surgery; surgery in medieval
times, ideas and techniques.
• Public health in the Middle Ages: towns and monasteries; the Black Death in Britain, beliefs
about its causes, treatment and prevention.
Part two: The beginnings of change (Early Modern Era: 1500-1800)
• The impact of the Renaissance on Britain: challenge to medical authority in anatomy,
physiology and surgery; the work of Vesalius, Paré, William Harvey; opposition to change.
• Dealing with disease: traditional and new methods of treatments; quackery; methods of
treating disease; plague; the growth of hospitals; changes to the training and status of
surgeons and physicians; the work of John Hunter.
• Prevention of disease: inoculation; Edward Jenner, vaccination and opposition to change.
Part three: A revolution in medicine (Industrial Era: 1800-1900)
• The development of Germ Theory and its impact on the treatment of disease in Britain: the
importance of Pasteur, Robert Koch and microbe hunting; Pasteur and vaccination; Paul
Ehrlich and magic bullets; everyday medical treatments and remedies.
• A revolution in surgery: anaesthetics, including Simpson and chloroform; antiseptics,
including Lister and carbolic acid; surgical procedures; aseptic surgery.
• Improvements in public health: public health problems in industrial Britain; cholera epidemics;
the role of public health reformers; local and national government involvement in public
health improvement, including the 1848 and 1875 Public Health Acts.
Part four: Modern medicine (1900-present)
• Modern treatment of disease: the development of the pharmaceutical industry; penicillin, its
discovery by Fleming, its development; new diseases and treatments, antibiotic resistance;
• The impact of war and technology on surgery: plastic surgery; blood transfusions; X-rays;
transplant surgery; modern surgical methods, including lasers, radiation therapy and keyhole
• Modern public health: the importance of Booth, Rowntree, and the Boer War; the Liberal
social reforms; the impact of two world wars on public health, poverty and housing; the
Beveridge Report and the Welfare State; creation and development of the National Health
Service; costs, choices and the issues of healthcare in the 21st century
"Boy... thank goodness they let all of those evil spirits out. I feel so much better now..."